Pure Gum Turpentine Additive

Single Tank WVO systems and blending SVO WVO to thin it.

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Pure Gum Turpentine Additive

Postby John Galt » Tue Mar 04, 2008 9:43 pm

Significant reduction in exhaust emissions were observed as a result of using turpentine and No:2 diesel fuel blend.

Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission Tests of Sulfate Turpentine and No:2 Diesel Fuel Blend
Authors: Cafer Kaplan a; M. Hakki Alma b; Ahmet Tutuscedil b; Merve Çetinkaya c; Filiz Karaosmanogbrevelu c
Affiliations: a Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Uludagbreve University, Görükle-Bursa, Turkey
b Department of Forest Industry Engineering, Kahramanmarascedil, Sütçü Idotmam University, Kahramanmarascedil, Turkey
c Department of Chemical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey
DOI: 10.1081/LFT-200038176
Published in: journal Petroleum Science and Technology, Volume 23, Issue 11 & 12 November 2005 , pages 1333 - 1339

Abstract
Environmentally friendly, biobased fuel additives become more important when environmental concerns all around the world are considered. In this study, sulfate turpentine is investigated as a candidate diesel fuel additive. Engine performance tests were conducted on a 53 kW, 4000 rpm Peugeot XD 3P 157 type diesel engine for 3:97 turpentine and No:2 diesel fuel blend and similar results to No:2 diesel fuel were obtained. Significant reduction in exhaust emissions were observed as a result of using turpentine and No:2 diesel fuel blend.
Keywords: diesel fuel; turpentine; sulfate turpentine; fuel additive; engine performance test; exhaust emissions

Turpentine is characterized by both its starting material and production process. All turpentines are
produced from Pinus spp. trees. Turpentine oil is derived from the oleoresin (balsam) collected from
the tree. Distillation of this material produces turpentine oil and the solid rosin. Steam-distilled
(wood) turpentine is derived from finely chopped wood chips and processed by either steam
distillation or solvent extraction. Sulfate and sulfite turpentines are by products of the kraft and
sulfite pulping processes, respectively. Destructively distilled wood turpentine is made by dry
distillation of pinewood (primarily pine stumps), followed by purification.
Turpentine is a mixture of constituents. The type and amount of specific constituents is dependent
on the type of pine tree, the geographical location of the trees, and the season of tree harvest.
Turpentine produced in the United States is made up primarily of α-pinene (75 to 85%) with varying
amounts of β-pinene (up to 3%), camphene (4 to 15%), limonene (dipentene, 5 to 15%), 3-carene,
and terpinolene (percentages not provided).
The production of turpentine oil in the United States peaked in the 1950s. Georgia is the only
remaining state that continues to collect pine balsam for the production of turpentine oil. Steamdistilled
wood turpentine was produced in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time
most of the turpentine produced in the United States is the by-product of the kraft pulping process,
sulfate turpentine. In 1999, total domestic production of turpentine was 20.7 million gallons. The
production of destructively distilled wood turpentine is no longer of commercial importance. No
additional information was available for sulfite turpentine. According to the U.S. EPA (2000),
aggregate production of turpentine oil ranged from between 100 and 500 million pound in the United
States for the 1998 reporting cycle.
Turpentine was formerly the most widely used paint and varnish thinner and is still used in some
paints and coatings. The use of less expensive petroleum-based products has replaced the use of
turpentine in paints. When turpentine is used today, it is most likely in specialty applications such as
spray painting, pottery and ceramic coatings, artist’s paints, and naval paints. Turpentine is
sometimes present in shoe and furniture polishes, and is used as a metal cleaner. Currently, the major
use of turpentine is as a raw material for the chemical industry. Terpenes and other compounds
extracted from turpentine can be used for such products as tires, plastics, adhesives, flavors and
fragrances, cosmetics, paints, and pharmaceuticals. The value of turpentine represents about 25% of
the value of all aroma chemicals produced for both sale and for internal use each year. Past uses for
turpentine include printing processes, hairdressing formulations, and as medicinals.



Posted 03-02-08,
Hello list. First let me say that this information is from memory about turpentine as the PC that has all of my data on it has taken a dump. It is very important to understand what the Cetane scale actually is a measurement of, it is the measurement of time from the beginning of injected fuel into a diesel engine until it auto ignites with very fixed engine related temperatures in milliseconds. If memory serves me from lab test from Langley (the predecessor to NASA), Cetane has a 6.5 millisecond delay.......now in that era lab grade diesel fuel had the same delay, so Cetane was then made the base line fuel of which the Cetane Value Index was derived. So, Cetane equals 100 on the scale. In other test studies from Langley turpentine was found to exceed the 100 scale ( from memory it was either 120 or 130). In other test from Langley it was found that turpentine was so powerful that benzene with the proper blend mix with turpentine would be a very good fuel for diesels.
It was also found that turpentine was a excellent Cetane improver for vegetable and animal oils. Other than a man made chemical found in 1942, it is the only additive that I have any documented test on that will improve the Cetane Value of all the fuels of VO's, gasoline, diesel fuel or blends of. Most, if not all over the counter (modern) diesel fuel Cetane boosters will only work with diesel fuel.

I hate to say this, but, I tried to get this information out on the forum years back.......
kind regards,
crossbones


"If Your Engine is not happy, You are not going to be".......

a properly tuned engine will greatly add to your success of using VO as fuel........

Posted 03-02-08,
Just back from a 1000km road trip running with about 2oz of Turpentine per gallon of my 85%WVO, 15%RUG blend. My engine ran really well.

The exhaust also had a nice “piney” fragrance.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1991 Toyota Hiace 4x4; 30,000 km on veg
3L engine w/ a 300W ½” heated fuel line, lift pump, additional Goldenrod 10um filter, and a 2nd tank for just diesel.
Main tank has a variable amount of diesel (0-50%) mixed w/
85% canola WVO
12% old gasoline blended w/
2% turpentine
1% acetone
John Galt
 
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