Research Reports

Single Tank WVO systems and blending SVO WVO to thin it.

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Postby BMW Fan » Fri May 22, 2009 7:29 am

http://dateien.poeltec.de/forschung/Pru ... OG2006.pdf

1.1.82 shows the influence of different types of vegetable oils like rape seed, sunflower, soja and peanut oils compared to Diesel

enjoy

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Postby 240Volvo » Fri May 22, 2009 8:14 am

coachgeo wrote:my understanding has been that the older mechanical MB IP's did have the ability to compensate for viscocity.

Im sorry I don't recall the physics behind it not that I totaly understood it when I first came across it. Something about passageways, increased pressures :?:


The car in this study does not have a mechanically controlled system, it is computer controlled.
1984 Volvo 240 diesel with a single tank Elsbett conversion: electric fuel filter heater, FPHE, glow plugs, and injectors. Also injector line heaters and block heater, running 20%kero/80%WVO winter blend.
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Postby coachgeo » Fri May 22, 2009 8:52 am

240Volvo wrote:
coachgeo wrote:my understanding has been that the older mechanical MB IP's did have the ability to compensate for viscocity.

Im sorry I don't recall the physics behind it not that I totaly understood it when I first came across it. Something about passageways, increased pressures :?:


The car in this study does not have a mechanically controlled system, it is computer controlled.
Glad to hear they incorporated viscosity into the programing. Will help the veg world. Wonder if they did that with alternative fuels in mind or for cold; thus more viscosous, fuels?
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Postby jburke » Fri May 22, 2009 10:54 am

" I was also of interest to me that they employed a webasto-type block heater."

Those are typically only employed on eintanks.
It would permit year round eintank ( s-t) operation because the engine would always be at 25*C. Was this CR M-B conversion an eintank?
AFAIK all E.'s CR kits are dual tank.

Wish these reports were more detailed.
Proprietary info maybe.

I missed thde refernce to the heated injectors.
Are they stock?
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Postby 240Volvo » Fri May 22, 2009 10:55 am

Hi, Geo

Here is what the study said about injection timing:

Modification of the system becomes especially difficult due to a lack of information of the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and its accessibility. The ECU box incorporates a program which governs the operation of the injection system by collecting and processing incoming signals as well as accordingly responding to them. The ECU code is incorporated in a microprocessor chip and can by accessed only through a specialised tool and altered through a specific interface. It becomes clear then, that any modifications changing the injection regime or conditions must be performed in combination of re-programming the ECU or replacing the existing electronic components. An alternative way is to change mechanical components being used to produce fuel spray. Although, following such way only limited number of changes can be performed. Therefore, a full set of suggested modifications could not be fully implemented and had to be partly applied. Some of the injection parameters like the rate of injection and the injection timing were automatically adjusted by the ECU itself due to its adaptive feature. It has been recognised that the control unit flexibly responded to new properties of the fuel and corrected the injection timing accordingly advancing or delaying ignition.
1984 Volvo 240 diesel with a single tank Elsbett conversion: electric fuel filter heater, FPHE, glow plugs, and injectors. Also injector line heaters and block heater, running 20%kero/80%WVO winter blend.
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Postby jburke » Fri May 22, 2009 11:10 am

"Glad to hear they incorporated viscosity into the programing."

Hi George,

I'm guessing that they wree able to detect the rise in pressure after start of injection. SVO/PPO would have a longer delay than diesel. They could detect this and compensate by advancing the injection timing. I don't think they would have measured viscosity. But its a guess.
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Postby 240Volvo » Fri May 22, 2009 11:24 am

Elsbett was involved in the research, but the system was designed to deal with the results of the problems they identified. They do not mention where the modification parts were sourced, but it is quite detailed in the description of those modifications. It is a single tank, as I believe that was the point of the research to establish, whether or not a modified modern CR diesel could run successfully long term on VO without damage.
1984 Volvo 240 diesel with a single tank Elsbett conversion: electric fuel filter heater, FPHE, glow plugs, and injectors. Also injector line heaters and block heater, running 20%kero/80%WVO winter blend.
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Postby BMW Fan » Sun May 24, 2009 7:15 pm

Another interesting report . The aim was to show pictures taken during the injection flash for Diesel compared to veggie oil . From page 30 to 35 for IDI injection, from page 36 on for CR. Quite interesting is the influence of higher injection pressure, too.

http://www.fachdokumente.lubw.baden-wue ... df&FIS=203

enjoy

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Postby 240Volvo » Mon May 25, 2009 8:46 am

Wow, Klaus, that is very interesting. I wish that I could read German! it looks like the relationship between pressure temperature and timing of injection are all well illustrated. Higher temperature, finer mist and somewhat less delay, lower temperature, less fine mist and more delay. Is that right?

Thanks for posting!
1984 Volvo 240 diesel with a single tank Elsbett conversion: electric fuel filter heater, FPHE, glow plugs, and injectors. Also injector line heaters and block heater, running 20%kero/80%WVO winter blend.
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Postby BMW Fan » Mon May 25, 2009 9:23 am

you made the point, Clay.

Even more interesting is that the report shows that there is no reason to stay away from common rail technique

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Postby 240Volvo » Mon May 25, 2009 12:52 pm

I could not read the study in a meaningful way, but I suspected from the illustrations alone that to be the case. Thanks for the study and the info, Klaus. I wish more of this info was available in English...

Hope that your planting season is going well!
1984 Volvo 240 diesel with a single tank Elsbett conversion: electric fuel filter heater, FPHE, glow plugs, and injectors. Also injector line heaters and block heater, running 20%kero/80%WVO winter blend.
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Graphs available for the CR M-B study 240Volvo?

Postby jburke » Wed May 27, 2009 9:03 am

It would be nice to see the graphs or pictures.

I realized why I was so confused, I was scanning the thread in reverse and only read 3 of 3 of your post 240Volvo. This morning I read parts 1 and 2. Yes it seems that CR's higher pressure is an advantage for SVO/PPO/RSO.

A really good report, it has all the info we coul donly speculate on for the effects of temperature and pressure
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Postby 240Volvo » Wed May 27, 2009 10:02 am

I saved this report when I found it because it refutes a lot of nonsense people say about both VO use and single tank systems. It is no longer posted online that I could find, and the only way that I could post it was cut and paste and splitting it up. When I saved it, it would not copy the graphs from the format they were in. Don't remember now what that was. It is a lot to slog through, and the language is a little unclear at times, even for a scientific paper...
1984 Volvo 240 diesel with a single tank Elsbett conversion: electric fuel filter heater, FPHE, glow plugs, and injectors. Also injector line heaters and block heater, running 20%kero/80%WVO winter blend.
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Postby John Galt » Tue Jun 08, 2010 2:10 am

Diesel Fuel You Grow on the Farm

Ohio State University (OSU) in Columbus,
Ohio, transports students around its spread-out
campus using a fleet of buses. Nothing unusual
in that. But, this year (1980) OSU is using soybean
oil as fuel.

Over the past decade, various student projects
at the OSU engineering school have shown
that vegetable oils can be used as fuel for diesel
engines. For a full year the university has run
a large, 60-passenger bus partly on soybean oil.
The experiment proved so successful that in
September the whole university fleet was
switched to the new fuel.

The soybean oil is collected from deep-fat
fryers in cafeterias and kitchens across the
University, filtered through muslin cloth by the
engineering students to remove gunk and
solids, and blended into diesel fuel. A ratio of
one part soybean oil to four parts diesel was
settled on as it gave a stable mixture, lowest
fuel consumption, and actually smoked less
than diesel fuel alone.


The first bus maintained its normal 40 hour
a week schedule. After 4,5oo miles on the soydiesel
blend the engine was taken apart and inspected.
Little or no abnormal wear had occurred.

The engine was actually in such fine
shape that it was merely reassembled and
returned to service without further attention.
...

Of all the research laboratories testing diesel
engines fueled by vegetable oils, the South African
government’s Division of Agricultural Engineering
has the most experience. At its laboratory
near Johannesburg it is running 10
tractors on sunflower oil. Fiat, International
Harvester, John Deere, Landini, Massey Ferguson,
and Ford tractors are being used, With
two exceptions the tractors started satisfactorily
on undiluted sunflower oil, All operated
normally, delivered almost full power, and
had virtually the same fuel consumption as on
diesel fuel. A Ford 7000 tractor has run troublefree
for almost 1,400 hours of operation on a
farm using a blend of 20 percent sunflower oil
and 80 percent diesel fuel. At the end of this
time it was found that deposits in the combustion
chamber, cylinders, and piston ring
grooves were no worse than those formed
burning normal operation on diesel fuel. On
the other hand, carbon deposits on the injector
nozzles were worse and contributed to an
eventual 4 percent power loss and serious gumming
of the crankcase oil.

The rapid compression of fuel and air in the
cylinder of diesel engines generates enough
heat to ignite the mixture and power the engine.
Unlike a gasoline engine, no spark is
needed. Injecting the fuel into the combustion
chamber is the most crucial step in a diesel engine.
The fuel must be forced in against the
pressure of the compressed air and to make this
doubly difficult, the fuel has to be in the form
of mist. If not atomized, the fuel burns slowly
and unevenly, reducing engine efficiency, raising
unburned pollutants in the exhaust and the
lubricating system, and even forming deposits
of solid carbon in the engine itself.
Vegetable oils are more viscous and less easily
atomized than diesel fuel and are therefore
more difficult to inject successfully. This is
probably why the injector tips suffered buildups
of carbon. Coking and the resulting incomplete
combustion diluted the lubricating oil and
gummed it up because vegetable oils will polymerize
when they are hot and next to metal.
The South African engineers, however, have
found a way that seems to avoid these difficulties,
They slightly modify the sunflower oil in
chemical reactions using small amounts of
ethanol or methanol. The resulting ethyl or
methyl esters derived from sunflower oil
caused much less coking than diesel fuel itself.

Furthermore, they produced much less exhaust
smoke, and the engine ran quieter so that the
characteristic diesel knock was less audible,
And, against all expectations, the engine gave
more power with the new fuel than with diesel
fuel. Thus tractors were running on a renewable
fuel grown by farmers and achieving better
results than on diesel fuel, Much yet remains
to be done to test the widespread
applicability of these results, but it is a line of
research that is bright with promise,

from:
Innovative Biological Technologies for
Lesser Developed Countries
p46-47

http://www.fas.org/ota/reports/8512.pdf
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Low-temperature flow properties of vegetable oil/cosolvent b

Postby Jeffrey S Brooks » Mon Feb 07, 2011 8:11 am

Low-temperature flow properties of vegetable oil/cosolvent blend diesel fuels

R. O. Dunn
Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Volume 79, Number 7, 709-715, DOI: 10.1007/s11746-002-0547-x

Abstract
Vegetable oils are an attractive renewable source for alternative diesel fuels. However, the relatively high kinematic viscosity of vegetable oils must be reduced to make them more compatible with conventional compression-ignition engines and fuel systems. Cosolvent blending is a low-cost and easy-to-adapt technology that reduces viscosity by diluting the vegetable oil with a low-M.W. alcohol (methanol or ethanol). The cosolvent (A), which consists of one or more amphiphilic compounds, is added to solubilize the otherwise nearly immiscible oil-polar alcohol mixture. This work investigates cold flow properties and phase equilibrium behavior associated with blends consisting of soybean oil (SBO) and methanol where A=8∶1 (mol) n-butanol/oleyl alcohol; 6∶1 (mol) 2-octanol/triethylammonium linoleate; and 4∶1 (mol) 2-octanol/Unadol 40 (alcohols from SBO FA); and a blend of 2∶1 (vol/vol) No. 2 diesel fuel/SBO and 95% ethanol where A=n-butanol. Cloud point (CP), pour point, cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and low-temperature flow test (LTFT) results were compared with corresponding phase separation temperature (T ϕ) data measured at equilibrium. Although CP data were measured under non-equilibrium experimental conditions, a nearly linear correlation was found between T ϕ and CP. Statistical analysis showed that T ϕ may also be correlated with CFPP and LTFT. Analysis of heating and cooling DSC curves indicated that peak temperatures may be employed to predict cold flow properties and T ϕ behavior for SBO/cosolvent blends. Cooling curve parameters correlated more readily than heating curve parameters. Finally, relatively low quantities of heat evolved during freezing indicated that crystallization in the SBO/cosolvent blends studied in this work occurs easily during cooling.

Key Words Cloud point - cold filter plugging point - cosolvency - diesel fuel - differential scanning calorimetry - low-temperature flow test - phase equilibria - pour point
http://www.springerlink.com/content/b555h07j01130564/
I have been running various blends of WVO and unleaded gasoline (RUG/Petrol) since Feb, 2007 on a 1983 Chevy 6.2L diesel with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas (petrol)) mix down to 3F (-16c).
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